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another take on Getting into Devops as a Beginner

I really enjoyed m4nz's recent post: Getting into DevOps as a beginner is tricky - My 50 cents to help with it and wanted to do my own version of it, in hopes that it might help beginners as well. I agree with most of their advice and recommend folks check it out if you haven't yet, but I wanted to provide more of a simple list of things to learn and tools to use to compliment their solid advice.

Background

While I went to college and got a degree, it wasn't in computer science. I simply developed an interest in Linux and Free & Open Source Software as a hobby. I set up a home server and home theater PC before smart TV's and Roku were really a thing simply because I thought it was cool and interesting and enjoyed the novelty of it.
Fast forward a few years and basically I was just tired of being poor lol. I had heard on the now defunct Linux Action Show podcast about linuxacademy.com and how people had had success with getting Linux jobs despite not having a degree by taking the courses there and acquiring certifications. I took a course, got the basic LPI Linux Essentials Certification, then got lucky by landing literally the first Linux job I applied for at a consulting firm as a junior sysadmin.
Without a CS degree, any real experience, and 1 measly certification, I figured I had to level up my skills as quickly as possible and this is where I really started to get into DevOps tools and methodologies. I now have 5 years experience in the IT world, most of it doing DevOps/SRE work.

Certifications

People have varying opinions on the relevance and worth of certifications. If you already have a CS degree or experience then they're probably not needed unless their structure and challenge would be a good motivation for you to learn more. Without experience or a CS degree, you'll probably need a few to break into the IT world unless you know someone or have something else to prove your skills, like a github profile with lots of open source contributions, or a non-profit you built a website for or something like that. Regardless of their efficacy at judging a candidate's ability to actually do DevOps/sysadmin work, they can absolutely help you get hired in my experience.
Right now, these are the certs I would recommend beginners pursue. You don't necessarily need all of them to get a job (I got started with just the first one on this list), and any real world experience you can get will be worth more than any number of certs imo (both in terms of knowledge gained and in increasing your prospects of getting hired), but this is a good starting place to help you plan out what certs you want to pursue. Some hiring managers and DevOps professionals don't care at all about certs, some folks will place way too much emphasis on them ... it all depends on the company and the person interviewing you. In my experience I feel that they absolutely helped me advance my career. If you feel you don't need them, that's cool too ... they're a lot of work so skip them if you can of course lol.

Tools and Experimentation

While certs can help you get hired, they won't make you a good DevOps Engineer or Site Reliability Engineer. The only way to get good, just like with anything else, is to practice. There are a lot of sub-areas in the DevOps world to specialize in ... though in my experience, especially at smaller companies, you'll be asked to do a little (or a lot) of all of them.
Though definitely not exhaustive, here's a list of tools you'll want to gain experience with both as points on a resume and as trusty tools in your tool belt you can call on to solve problems. While there is plenty of "resume driven development" in the DevOps world, these tools are solving real problems that people encounter and struggle with all the time, i.e., you're not just learning them because they are cool and flashy, but because not knowing and using them is a giant pain!
There are many, many other DevOps tools I left out that are worthwhile (I didn't even touch the tools in the kubernetes space like helm and spinnaker). Definitely don't stop at this list! A good DevOps engineer is always looking to add useful tools to their tool belt. This industry changes so quickly, it's hard to keep up. That's why it's important to also learn the "why" of each of these tools, so that you can determine which tool would best solve a particular problem. Nearly everything on this list could be swapped for another tool to accomplish the same goals. The ones I listed are simply the most common/popular and so are a good place to start for beginners.

Programming Languages

Any language you learn will be useful and make you a better sysadmin/DevOps Eng/SRE, but these are the 3 I would recommend that beginners target first.

Expanding your knowledge

As m4nz correctly pointed out in their post, while knowledge of and experience with popular DevOps tools is important; nothing beats in-depth knowledge of the underlying systems. The more you can learn about Linux, operating system design, distributed systems, git concepts, language design, networking (it's always DNS ;) the better. Yes, all the tools listed above are extremely useful and will help you do your job, but it helps to know why we use those tools in the first place. What problems are they solving? The solutions to many production problems have already been automated away for the most part: kubernetes will restart a failed service automatically, automated testing catches many common bugs, etc. ... but that means that sometimes the solution to the issue you're troubleshooting will be quite esoteric. Occam's razor still applies, and it's usually the simplest explanation that works; but sometimes the problem really is at the kernel level.
The biggest innovations in the IT world are generally ones of abstractions: config management abstracts away tedious server provisioning, cloud providers abstract away the data center, containers abstract away the OS level, container orchestration abstracts away the node and cluster level, etc. Understanding what it happening beneath each layer of abstraction is crucial. It gives you a "big picture" of how everything fits together and why things are the way they are; and it allows you to place new tools and information into the big picture so you'll know why they'd be useful or whether or not they'd work for your company and team before you've even looked in-depth at them.
Anyway, I hope that helps. I'll be happy to answer any beginnegetting started questions that folks have! I don't care to argue about this or that point in my post, but if you have a better suggestion or additional advice then please just add it here in the comments or in your own post! A good DevOps Eng/SRE freely shares their knowledge so that we can all improve.
submitted by jamabake to devops [link] [comments]

Временно бесплатные курсы Udemy

Временно бесплатные курсы Udemy

https://preview.redd.it/se7zt100k9c31.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b7d9eb97754935764b044d2dd31900c6106efab5
Подборка временно бесплатных курсов Udemy.122 шт. Промокоды, вшиты в ссылки.Все курсы на английском.

  1. Agile Retrospective: Continuous Improvement + Kaizen Wth Scrum
  2. Artificial Intelligence Concepts - AI 101
  3. Build Interactive Apps Using VueJS, Vuex And VueRouter
  4. C Programming 2019
  5. CloverETL Data Integration
  6. Create A SHMUP With Unity 3D
  7. Google Cloud Platform Associate Cloud Engineer Practice Test
  8. How To Create Android Apps Without Coding Advance Course
  9. How to Install Linux Mint (Cinnamon) on a Virtual Machine
  10. How to Install Ubuntu Linux on a Virtual Machine
  11. How To Uv Unwrap Models In Blender
12. Introduction To SAS
13. iOS 12 Chat Application Like WhatsApp And Viber
14. iOS App Grocery List (Swift 3.1, iOS10.3) From 0 To AppStore
  1. iOS12 Animations, Learn Swift Animation With UIKit
16. iOS12 Bootcamp From Beginner To Professional iOS Developer
  1. JavaScript & LeetCode | The Ultimate Interview Bootcamp
  2. Learn Angular 8 By Creating A Simple Full Stack Web App
  3. Learn How To Make Trading Card Game Menus With Unity 3D
20. Learn React JS And Web API By Creating A Full Stack Web App
  1. Learn To Code Trading Card Game Battle System With Unity 3D
  2. Learn To Code With Python 3!
  3. Linux For Absolute Beginners!
  4. Linux Shell Terminal Command Basics
  5. Machine Learning iOS 11
  6. MapReduce Architecture For Big Data
  7. QuickChat 2.0 (WhatsApp Like Chat) iOS10 And Swift 3
  8. Random Forest Algorithm In Machine Learning
  9. Scrum Advanced: Software Development & Program Management
  10. Scrum Certification Prep + Scrum Master + Agile Scrum Training
  11. Simple And Advanced Topics Of Animating 2D Characters
  12. SSL Complete Guide: HTTP To HTTPS
  13. Start your own online store now for FREE
  14. Swift Weather (Meteorology) Application With REST API
  15. The Complete jQuery Course 2019: Build Real World Projects!
  16. Understanding On Google Charts
  17. User Stories For Agile Scrum + Product Owner + Business Analysis
  18. WP Plugin Development - Build Your Own Plugin!
  19. Double Your Office Productivity Using Google Apps
  20. How to become a much better & safer driver & avoid accidents
  21. Leadership Wisdom - Advanced Leadership Strategies
  22. Use your perfectionism to be more successful at work
  23. 3D Animation Film-Making With Plotagon: Ultra-Speed 2019 Design
  24. Blender Beginners Guide To 3D Modeling Game Asset Pipeline Design
  25. Citrix 1Y0-371 Designing Deploying Managing Citrix Exam IT & Software
  26. Complete Whiteboard Video Creation With VideoScribe: 2019 Design
  27. Create Lightning Fast Videos With InVideo: AI Video Making Design
  28. Learn Cinema 4D: Low Poly Tree Design
  29. Learn Illustrator CC: Create Simple Flat Vector Characters Design
  30. The Illustration Masterclass Design
  31. The Open Source Multimedia Masterclass Design
  32. Camtasia Studio 9: Become a Video Editing Guru With Camtasia
  33. 10 Copywriting Hacks That Work In 2019
  34. 10 Facebook Marketing Hacks That Work In 2019
  35. Certified Facebook Marketing 2019 (Complete Masterclass)
  36. Certified Network Marketer (Network Marketing & MLM Mastery)
  37. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing Secrets Home Business Success
  38. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing: NO Cost, No Website - Proven
  39. Competitor Analysis Tools For 2019: Part 1
  40. Digital Marketing Secrets For Beginners
  41. Email Blasting For Commissions [CPA & Affiliate Marketing]
  42. Email Marketing Mastery to Earn More & Build a Huge List
63. Facebook Ads 101. Complete Facebook Ads & Marketing Course
  1. Facebook Marketing: Advanced Targeting Strategies
  2. Facebook Marketing: How To Build A List With Lead Ads
  3. Facebook Marketing: How To Build A Targeted Email List
  4. Fraud Analytics Using R & Microsoft Excel
  5. Gamification: Use Gamification In Marketing
  6. Google Analytics For Beginners 2019
  7. Google Analytics For WordPress to Track Your Website Traffic
  8. Home Business: CPA Marketing From Scratch
  9. How To Get Your First 1,000 Facebook Fans: For Beginners
  10. How To Promote CPA Offers With Bing Ads
  11. Influencer Content Marketing: Killer Tactics For 2019
  12. Instagram Marketing Growth Tips [Influencer Shortcuts]
  13. Marketing Analytics Using R And Excel
  14. Master ClickFunnels & Create Sales Funnels Like a Boss
  15. Modern Social Media Marketing - Complete Certificate Course
  16. Powerpoint 4 Video Part A - Introduction + Character Animation
  17. Secrets Exposed: Find The Most Profitable Niches Of 2019
  18. Talking Robots: Artificial Intelligence Audiobook Creation
  19. The Complete Social Media Marketing Agency Masterclass
  20. VideoScribe: Whiteboard Animation From Zero To Hero
  21. VideoScribe Whiteboard Animation: Create Amazing Promo Video
  22. Viral Content Buzz - Killer Tactics For Blog Promotions
  23. YouTube Creator Tips [Grow A Channel-Get More Subs & Views]
  24. Youtube SEO Course: How TO Rank # 1 On YouTube In 2019
  25. YouTube Video Marketing For Domination: ViralNomics 2019
  26. Artificial Intelligence Music Creation & Remixing 2019
  27. STRUMMING SIMPLIFIED: 51 Guitar Rhythms For All Styles!
  28. Agile Project Management: Scrum Step By Step With Examples
  29. Amazon Dropship Mastery
  30. Amazon FBA Tycoon - The Ultimate Private Label Masterclass
  31. Artificial Intelligence And Predictive Analysis Using Python
  32. Binary Options Trading Ninja: The Bandit Strategy
  33. Bitcoin Valuation: Methods And Frameworks
  34. Business Education: Guide To Blockchain And Cryptocurrencies
  35. Certified Network Marketer (Network Marketing & MLM Mastery)
  36. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing Secrets Home Business Success
  37. Dropshipping With WordPress: Create A Dropship Business Fast
  38. eCommerce Business: Set Up Your Own Business From Home
  39. Entrepreneurship: Complete Guide To Business Model Creation
  40. Entrepreneurship Bootcamp: Create Work At Home Business
  41. Entrepreneurship Tips For Success
  42. Futures Trading Ninja: DIY Futures Trading Course (12 Hour)
  43. Gamification: Use Gamification In Marketing
  44. Home Business: CPA Marketing From Scratch
  45. How To Be Lucky In Business And Life
  46. Lean Six Sigma Applications In Information Technology
  47. Online Business: How I Make 5 Figure Passive Income on JVZoo
  48. Pandas With Python Tutorial
  49. Personal / Business Networking Skills For Maximum Success!
  50. Project Management: Deliver On Time + Scrum Project Delivery
  51. Scrum Master Training: Case Studies And Confessions
  52. Start Making Passive Income Online: The Complete Bundle
  53. The BeLive Studio2 Course For Live Broadcasters
  54. The Complete Personal Productivity Course - Business & Life
  55. Transformational Leadership - Ultimate Leadership Course
  56. Ultimate Time Management - BEST Time Management Course
  57. User Stories For Agile Scrum + Product Owner + Business Analysis
  58. Your Complete Guide To Agile, Scrum, Kanban
  59. Your Ultimate Blueprint To Sell Products Online


Источник: Телеграм-канал WScoupon
submitted by abbelrus to Pikabu [link] [comments]

The Breadtube Pipeline

Here's vids on themes of the alt right (racism & xenophobia, capitalism, transphobia, queerphobia, misogyny, statism, rhetoric) & the stupidity of some of the creators in or making a pipeline to it in bold (before that, watch Contrapoints' video on the fetishisation of "free speech" & how it's misinterpreted; Does the Left Hate Free Speech.
If anyone can mirror these vids, given they'll likely be mass flagged if used to any significant extent, that'd be great. For any that require age verification, nsfwyoutube should usually work if you haven't got a google account or your account/browser isn't allowing viewing.

On race & xenophobia

Before we get into the other videos, here's some reading on the "Irish slave" myth: https://medium.com/@Limerick1914/the-imagery-of-the-irish-slaves-myth-dissected-143e70aa6e74 & here's a video on it by The Unemployed Historian: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8GhuimR2Kis
Black Lives Matter
Non white cultures
From Nothing, an African history channel run by an African American, has made:
Race & IQ subsection (If you're a race "realist", start here)
Other forms of race "realism" subsection (If you're a race "realist", start here)
Immigration subsection
Islamophobia
Confederacy
Holocaust Denial
If you want reading, take a read of this: https://web.archive.org/web/20190514135040/http://www.nizkor.org/ or this: https://www.hdot.org/debunking-denial/ (or both) & if you're going to be a denier, never rely on the work, or derivatives of the work, of David Irving, as he was proven in court to be a liar: https://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWHC/QB/2000/115.html; this thread may also be helpful: https://www.reddit.com/AskHistorians/comments/549oah/holocaust_questions/

Creators on the right being counterfactual

Capitalism is garbage

The basics to understand the rest
The rest
Capitalism vs Housing
Capitalism vs Mental Health
Capitalism vs Gaming
Intellectual Property (Propped Up By Capitalism) vs Creativity

Transphobia is nonsense (& makes nonsensical situations)

This is quite comperehensive: https://www.reddit.com/musicotic/comments/8ttud4/a_comprehensive_defense_of_trans_people/
For the gender abolitionists among anyone reading, I encourage you to watch Gender Abolition? by Anarchopac: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAKcixWvxYM
WoMeN & GiRlS SpAcEs
Transgender Children
ROGD (The first 3 say roughly the paper is bunk, the 4th regards the correction issued by PLOS)
Non-binary Folks
A Note On Sex (not the NSFW kind) As A Spectrum For The Chronic Transphobe
1: Words are invented for their utility for describing things.
2: "Sex" is a word invented to have utility in describing all sexual variation.
3: Sex is typically defined as a binary that is set from birth, by social conservatives. I will call this the "stuck binary" model from here, not a technical term, just a clear phrase I made up just now.
4: Sexual variation is a binomial spectrum (https://twitter.com/ScienceVet2/status/1035246030500061184), partially made clear in intersex folks; or even that the same person can have 2 sets of chromosomes in the same body (XX & XY in different places, for example) or be infertile if you're basing your classification on gametes.
5: Transgender folks can (but don't always) change thier primary & secondary sexual characteristics with surgeries & medicine
6: Science cannot make claims that we ought to make a category but those participating in the creation of science can observe that something(s) exist(s).
Conclusion: Given premise 2, the utility of the word "sex" is diminished when used (as in 3) synonymously with the "stuck binary" model as it does not (4 & 5) accurately describe sexual varition as it is supposed to. Given 6 it is up to us whether we use a different word, redefine the word, or give up on having a word, as science cannot tell us from what does exist, how we ought to make categories from that data.
As I do not want to make the word "sex" entirely useless since it can still serve good utility describing sexual variation if redefined, sex ought be redefined as a spectrum with a binomial distribution in line with what is actually true about sexual variation, & be applied in such a way that the assignment is not static, in line with accurately representing the bodies with which we seek to apply the word.
Where you may disagree:
If you don't think the word "sex" ought to describe all sexual variation including modification of those sexual characteristics, that's an option (though it can & will & does have awful consequences for those who don't fit neatly into 2 option schema as detailed in the linked thread & in many places elsewhere), but you can't just defer to science & say it decides for you what you ought to do. People can make ought claims about categories & words, science (as far as it is the systematised description of reality) cannot. Only we can say "this is that & this is this other thing & that is that other thing & you over there don't even get to say you have a sex", categories weren't around before there were people to make them up.
BUT
This logic is too often circular (pointed out to me by this vid by 2 NB Polish socialists, "Biological sex as a spectrum" by TransGrysy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igjhN5puQIk, it's English subbed & I urge you to subscribe to them & donate to them if you can afford it since the leftist presence is much lesser in Poland) where transgender folks & intersex folks are disregared as abberations or failures of nature or similar as justification for not changing the model of sex from the "stuck binary" model to something actually representative of sexual variation, but the only reason this is said is because they differ from the "stuck binary" model. It justifies the model on the basis that the model is currently used, which is frankly ridiculous circular logic.

Queerphobia Is Awful

Queer history
Queerness In Non-Human Animals
If you couldn't be bothered to read this page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homosexual_behavior_in_animals; here's some videos:

Misogyny Is Bad Actually

Men's Rights Antifeminism Is Silly

While I have you here, The ManKind Intiative (https://www.mankind.org.uk/) does great work helping guys who are victims of domestic violence, donate to them or your local equivalent of them if you can.

Anti-Statism

While you're here, fellow leftists, here's the anarchist critique of seizing state power - Means & Ends: The Anarchist Critique of Seizing State Power by Anarchopac: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vsRyTWBj84E
Prison Industrial Complex
Education For Obedience
If Voting Produced Revolution, They'd Make It Illegal
Military Industrial Complex
State Propagandism
submitted by Anarchadog to Anarchadog [link] [comments]

DEVCON2 report: Day 2 - More session notes & photos

Previous days
Day info
In the evening there was a party up on the rooftop of Bar Rouge http://www.bar-rouge-shanghai.com/
It had a beautiful view over the Shanghai bund. Many people there, but plenty of space to fit everyone. There was some lovely very striking Chinese artwork on the walls http://imgur.com/tWmNTpE http://imgur.com/vB4spwH http://imgur.com/U8gSgu2 http://imgur.com/b2eXPzZ
During the day, Ethereum Tshirts were made available for sale. But less than 30 minutes later most sizes were completely sold out! http://imgur.com/iJR0FHd http://imgur.com/W6mgkDb
`
Sessions
Lots of formal verification sessions in the morning. The afternoon was more dev tools. I was excited about Truffle
Smart contract security
Showed the 1 line mistake that caused The DAO re-entry attack. Pro tip: tag your untrusted accounts in the contract. e.g. Name the variable something like _untrusted_account https://github.com/Consensys/smart-contract-best-practices https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Safety
Prepare for failure. Be aware that unknown exploits can be found. Put in escape hatches / kill switches Roll out carefully and test "The strongest swords are forged by continuously putting them in the fire" External calls to other contracts: Try to avoid calling untrusted contracts (one written by someone else). It only takes 1 mistake in an external contract to expose you. Either from a bug, or from your external contract then calling another malicious contract. Use send(), avoid call.value()() Handle errors in raw calls. Raw calls do not propogate exceptions. e.g. if(!address.send()) An attacker could construct a call to max out the call stack, so that when your contract tries to make any calls they fail. Favour PULL over PUSH for payments
Visualising Security
https://github.com/Raineorshine/solgraph How can you spot smart contract vulnerabilities Static analysis can help analyse the code without executing it (like checking for null, then using a variable anyway). Builds up an AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) which can be explored. Created solgraph to do this Dynamic analysis is done by running unit tests (e.g. you can use the Ruby test runner from yesterday's presentation)
Ethereum Security Overview
Can try to manage risk by reducing the likelihood or impact. Security concerns include things like wallets, gaming the system, denial of service
End users wallets isolation: Can reduce your impact by using a hot wallet with a small amount in it. Cold wallets to hold more of it securely There are some hardware based wallets can help secure your wallets Then frozen wallets to keep them offline. Ethereum valut by @Arachnid. Multi sig wallets can help reduce the likelihood
Contracts: When calling another contract, if they use randomness WHERE do they source it from? Can it be gamed? Can anyone access it before you? Sybil attacks (attacker using multiple identities) to game against you Can anyone rage quit and lock up the contract by not interacting with it any more
DAPPS: Use HTTPS, BUT DO NOT USE CDNs Someone could inject malicious JS that will modify your DAAP and redirect payments to another address. Have an upgrade path (for both code and data). Check invariants, use escape hatches / emergency breaks Many potential contract vulnerabilities (see previous talks) Favour PULL over PUSH for payments
Formal verification for Solidity
Writing code correctly is hard. It is easy to test for desired behaviour (the happy path). Hard to check absence of undesired behaviour. Formal verification can help find undesired behaviour. The specifications are usually compiled down to why3 or f* Showed a Why3 GUI that shows your code and highlights lines that are not passing (e.g. because a line doesn't satisfy the conditions that it can't integer overflow.
Microsoft released a research paper allowing the conversion of Solidity & EVM code to f*.
Parity's innovations
Written in Rust (type safe. Memory safe). Is modular, you can tweak it or use preset config files. High transaction throughput. Low latency. Low footprint (suitable for IoT devices). Unsafe APIs are disabled be default. Advanced eafutures like state trie pruning (redued disk space) snapshotting, warp sync, private chains including PoA
Imandra Contracts: Formal Verification for Ethereum Completely tuned out for this. It was very much like a sales pitch, just talking itself up.
Ether.camp annual summary
Released Ethereum Studio. Is available on Azure as an easily deployable Virtual Machine https://azure.microsoft.com/en-in/documentation/templates/ethereum-studio-docker-standalone-ubuntu/ Will help you write unit tests. Spin it up, execute, tear down. A partnership with Santander. Ethereum Cash. You can tie an Ethereum account to a bank account. More info at http://www.coindesk.com/santander-vies-become-first-bank-issue-digital-cash-blockchain/ Created a virtual accelerator hack.ether.camp
Metamask - Bridging ethereum to browsers
Ease of adoption is their core goal User flow. You download, generate a vault (with a deterministic keyphrase). Enter phone number, credit card details, and you can get Ether directly into your metamask account. Done 33 releaes. 12k users. Extension currently runs on chrome. Is ready to be pushed to opera, firefox & Edge RPC requests to a trusted node. Intercepts the RPC calls within the DAPP to redirect to Metamask Feature Requests: Multiple account types (e.g. uPort, remote key stores), make the browser a light client
Building the Light Client Ecosystem
Quick sync (up to 0k headers/sec) 30 secs - 5mins for a full sync (dependant on CPU) Low resource requirements (DB <100mb, RAM < 500mb) RPC interface compatibile with full nodes. Mist already works with it Because light clients rely on full nodes and put higher workload on them, there are some thoughts about having a basic throttled "free" service, and a paid priority system that will give more resources. There are difficult future concerns around scalability. In a future sharded world, may need multiple full nodes to cover all the shards. Future work: do complex operations on server side. Define a "SuperCM" that can answer any question about the chain. Generalised off chain computing for accessing data.
Import Geth: Ethereum from Go and beyond
Geth is one of the 3 origin clients. Evolved throughout the Ethereum prototyping. Needed to include everhtying to develop on top. Followed the Geth -> Mist -> Dapps architecture. Using Geth as a library isn't a good option at the moment. has started to collect technical debt, from prototypes being rapidly iterated on. Geth 1.5 is a concentrated effort to make Geth a library. Client side account management, Remote node APIs, native bindings to contracts, in-process ethereum client Chain exploration, state querying and event subscription over IPC, HTTP or WebSocket. Native contracts. Can generate a Ethereum ABI GO binding that GO code can use? Can create a solidity wrapper for go? In process nodes lets you hose a node within your app. Saves you telling someone to "please go and install an ethereum node". What about supporting this on iOS & Android? Geth 1.3 already ran on mobile platforms. Released an embeddable library in Dec 2015, but is really a proof of concept. Mobile in-process nodes. Easier to call API locally now.
Developing Scalable Decentralized Applications for Swarm & Ethereum
Web 2.0 has issues around scaling & centralised control. When moving to Web 3.0 we need a general purpose distributed backend (swarm/bzz). Said there MAY be interoperability with IPFS. They hope that it will share a lot of the underlying principals with IPFS. I HOPE this happens! Well leverage network effects from IPFS. Logic being pushed to clients (logic in JS in browser, in native mobile
Swarm high level API. URL begins with the collection root hash (like IPFS) bzz:///imgs/example.jpg Can do root hash registration to a friendly name (like IPFS's IPNS) bzz://some.friendly.name/imgs/example.jpg Put static and dynamic data within swarm. Put global state changes onto the blockchain. Local client side only state changes can be stored locally (and optionally backed up to blockchain/swarm) Execute logic locally, but verify it on chain.
Example Dapp Distributed photo album. Webapp resources & data hosted in swarm. Current root hash of collections published to blockchain. Optimised image, thumbnails, etc. are generated client side before uploading (just like facebook, etc. do) Possibility to instead do delegated computation, put the files in swarm, get someone else to process it.
Dapple Dev Workflow
https://github.com/nexusdev/dapple https://github.com/nexusdev/dappsys Dapple looks like a critical thing to integrate into your development suite! If you are into devops, I definitely recommend watching this vid later to see how you could integrate testing flows. http://Dapphub.io EVM Dev Multitool for helping with Dapp developments. Has EVM extensions Has a shared data model "Dappfile". Is a package/dapp descriptor format. Shared global runtime environment blurs line between code packages & deployed code objects. Can chain fork, to help you when testing contracts. Can find dependencies. Custom linker Test harness to use a contract to test other contracts Use the chain forking in your tests. Take live chain, fork, insert your test contract, fork before you call each test method. Deploy: Wallet side scripting. Hijacks call and create, and redirects to side chains. So you can do some dry runs.
Solidity for Dummies
Solidity is a higher level language. Looks like Javascript, but with types. Shame they didn't just use TypeScript ;-) Maybe Solidity 2.0 can migrate to using TypeScript. Solidity is compiled to EVM. Once it is in the EVM it is isloated. Public functions are callable by anybody. That is your contract public surface area / exposed APIs. Contract standards are beginning to emerge e.g. ERC20 interface for tokens. Having a standard for token meant that the community can do cool things, like etherscan.io that lets you look up tokens in the block chain, or EtherEx that is a decentralised token exchange. Lots of IDEs & tools you can use with solidity. Ethereum Studio, Visual Studio, Vim. Solgraph, truffle, dapple, embark.
Getting started guide https://www.reddit.com/ethereum/comments/4ws9um/rethereum_rules_and_getting_started_guide/
New and future features of Solidity
Initial goals of solidity: statically typed. Easily readable. High level. Uses little gas. What has happened in the last year? Build custom types. Internal library functions. Source mapping via AST, for solidity code to EVM, assists with debugging. Future: Formal verification. Authenticated sources & binaries via swarm. Templates. Functions as 1st class citizen. New notation for parallel / async programs
How to create advanced Dapps using embark
Compatible with any build pipeline Supports contracts TDD using Javascript Manages deployed contracts, deploys only when needed (and dependent contracts) Manages different chanes (e.g. testnet, pribate net, livenet) Support for both Solidity and Serpent Contract instances, like inheritence. Embark 2 goals. Facilitate communication between contracts. A cool dashboard, shows which contracts have been deployed, available services (geth whisper, IPFS) EmbarkJS futures: promises and named parameters. Automatic type conversion. Communication abstraction, allows you to plug in supported providers like whisper, etc. Storage abstraction provider (swarm, etc.)
Truffle Development Ecosystem and Future of Ethereum Development Tools
http://truffleframework.com/ https://github.com/ConsenSys/truffle
Truffle is the most widely used Ethereum development framework. 17k+ downloads In v1 Compiliation, deployment, bootstrapping, abstractions, unit testing, quick development. In v2 Network management, Migrations, Modularity, Documentation. Going towards Truffle v3 Ethereumjs-testrpc allows instant mining, account creation, HD wallet support, deterministic. Allows you to fork from any available chain, for a new development chain (sounds like chain forking in Dapple). Take the live chain, fork it, then try developing against contracts in the live net on your dev fork. Solidity unit testing Npm integratoin "npm install my-package". Import sol contracts. Webpack integration. Ether-pudding allows you wo watch for events. Futures: Solidity 0.4 support, better network management, more integrations, more boilerplate, more tutorials.
ENS: Ethereum (Domain) Name System
Why do we need "yet another name service". To allow you to name wallets, files, etc on top of Swarm & IPFS. Existing name servies are ironically centralised within a single place or contract.
What makes a good name service? Separation of concerns, distributed authority, forward compatibility, efficient on-chain resolution. Components: Registrars, ENS Registry, Resolvers. ENS Registry maps the name (hack.eth, nick.hack.eth) to the resolver Resolver is a simple contract that lets you set the address for a name, look up names, etc. Registrars, let people be in charge of a TLD (.eth) and then allow people to register under them (automatically through a smart contract). Initially an auction based registration. Only names under .eth are available.
Making Smart Contracts Smarter: Oyente
https://github.com/ethereum/oyente Smart contracts == one-shot programs. Self executed, cannot patch. Solidity is similar but not the same as Javascript. Original contract code is not always available (but the new solidity feature of putting onto swarm may fix this). Too many smart contracts to manually decompile EVM and check them all. Oyente is a new analyzer for smart contracts. Use cymbolic executions. Detects all popular bugs TOD (transaction ordering dependence), Timestamp dependence, re-entrancy, mishandling exceptions. TOD: Observed state != execution state. The state may change between when you submit a transaction and it is executed. Someone can watch transactions being submitted looking for a critical execution, could quickly snipe and enter your own transaction into the transaction pool as well with a higher fee to try and get yours executed before the other person. Timestamps: Can be manipulated by miners. Oyente Symbolic execution. Can build a tree of every branch and possible execution and run over it. Can detect bugs, test generation, and go over all possible paths.
Beyond the Bubble
Overcoming education and adoption challenges for the Blockchain industry. He is a technical evangelist for blockchain. Last month went and spoke to US gov to advise FBI, CIA, etc. Wants to help grow the blockchain beyond just us very early adopters. Fintech is rapidly developing blockchain solutions. IoT, energy & medical are looking towards adoption. Longer term, governments & non profits.
Why do normal people care? Internet still functions off 1970s tech: Our data is sent in plaintext, leaked by companies, our identities are stolen by hackers, our behaviour is mined and monetized by advertisers. People are beginning to understand the need to have same privacy and security guarantees online as they do offline. Things should be encrypted by default. "Own your own data"
Infura. Ethereum & IPFS infrastructure
https://infura.io/ How do devs ensure that users have access to Ethereum & IPFS. How to make it easier for users to jump in. Didn't show anything. Just talked (only had 10 mins). There was a services called Ferryman that can talk to the IPFS/Ethereum network. Apparently being used by Metamask, uport, regis, truffle.
Testing Ethereum Consensus
There are HEAPS of ethereum clients (Geth, Parity, etc). How can we ensure that they all come to the same consensus? By using a suite of tests. State tests, Blockchain tests, http://ethdocs.org/en/latest/contracts-and-transactions/ethereum-tests/
CarbonVote: A Gauge for Human Consensus
http://Carbonvote.com "Machines serves human. Carbon over silicion. Consensus from community". (use people to make a decision, not computers). Machine consensus is just a tool for human consensus.
Sikorka – Ethereum meets the Outdoors
A system that facilities deploying smart contracts in real world locations. Enables smart contracts to interface with environment. Provide "proof of presence" that a user is indeed in correct location. Potential uses: loyalty programs offering discounts to people visiting specific locations. Proving attendance in a location for official purposes e.g. administrative, corporate, AR games. Proof or Presence: using mobile phones and software - geolocation data (can be spoofed) use a challenge question (e.g. what is the last word on a monument's plaque). Scannable QR codes, RFID tags, beacons. Sikorka works by deploying contracts that follow a specific interface. Interaction with contract only happens after PoP.
Remix and Other Ethereum Development Tools
https://github.com/ethereum/remix smart contract debugging Is a NPM module. Looks very early stage. Says it can be integrated into other tools like Dapple, truffle, ethereum studio, Visual Studio, etc.).
Mango: Git Completely Decentralized
https://Github.com/axic/mango Git on Ethereum, IPFS & Swarm Harder to take down a central repo (e.g. Github) Proof of existence for source coode. Ethereum is a decentralised system. Its source code should be available in a decentralised manner. Using IPFS or Swarm, the files are chunked up and stored. So if you have a large file that only changes a few bytes, it can de-dupe and only store the chunks with differences. Git is a merkle tree. IPFS/Swarm directly store as a merkle tree/dag (There are some good talks by Juan Bennet from IPFS talking about how you can do this)
Naïve implementation, store everything in a contract on a blockchain, would cost 50M ether
Useful implementation, store objects in IPFS or Swarm to store the data off chain. Then map the IPFS identifies to git identifiers. Save those identifiers on the blockchain so you know what to look up.
Hook it up so that a git push updates the commit hash to contract, then pushes to IPFS. Reduces gas cost to 140,000 down from 5m Every git repo has its own contract. Future work could let you expose your git repo via ENS (Ethereum Name Service) e.g. solidity.ethereum.mango.eth Future of Mango: store release notes within git. Store issues within git. Store pull requests. Create user friendly web frontends
submitted by DavidBurela to ethereum [link] [comments]

Haxe/OpenFL for Home Game Consoles

(Originally posted at FortressOfDoors)
UPDATE: If you're interested in this, you can fill out this form as a starting point: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nOWzWk1ABMbvnXVXe5XZJT7sFfuhVVdZ46tQ9t0OJ3o/viewform?usp=send_form
CONTEXT: This is a presentation I recently gave at WWX2015 (WorldWide Haxe conference) in Paris, France, about getting the Haxe/OpenFL stack to run on home game consoles.
Briefly stated, Defender's Quest HD and Defender's Quest II use three core technologies:
10 second summary:
Haxe is a programming language that compiles to other programming languages (everything from C++ to Javascript to Python), it's been around for about 10 years and is extremely powerful. OpenFL is a hardware-accelerated cross-platform reimplementation of the Flash API, built on top of Haxe (OpenFL does not have the Flash player's performance and security limitations and has nothing to do with Adobe), and HaxeFlixel is a really cool 2D game engine.
And my talk is about making that entire tech stack work on home game consoles.
Let's go:
Slide 1
(walks up to podium)
Slide 2
Hey everyone, today we're going to talk about how we got Lime and OpenFL to run on home game console hardware, such as WiiU, Xbox One, Playstation 4, etc.
Slide 3
My name's Lars Doucet, I work for Level Up Labs, developers of Defender's Quest and Defender's Quest II.
I'm a regular contributor to Haxe projects, chiefly OpenFL and HaxeFlixel, I also have a few of my own libraries some of you might have used, such as crashdumper, firetongue, etc.
Slide 4
Our funding team is three developers -- Level Up Labs, 3909 (Lucas Pope's company, who did Papers, Please), and Puzzl, who did Yummy Circus.
Slide 5
The programmers actually building this are James Gray, Joshua Granick, and Justo Delgado who you might recognize from OpenFL, and myself.
Slide 6
We've gotten a lot of interest in a Haxe/OpenFL console backend.
So here's just a short list of various people who are watching this project -- the developers of games like Anodyne, Rebuild, Rymdkapsel, Ghost Song, NEO Scavenger, Telepath Tactics, Evoland (Haxe's own Nicolas Canasse of course!), as well as the various engines built on OpenFL. There's my own team HaxeFlixel, but also HaxePunk, and tool companies like Stencyl.
Also, I should note Adam Saltsman, developer of the original Flash Flixel, is watching this with a lot of interest, as is Tom Fulp (best known as the founder of Newgrounds and The Behemoth), and legions of current and former flash game developers.
Slide 7
So our first goal is just to get our own games working on consoles at all. Split the cost, just get it done.
Slide 8
After that, we'll look at how we'll be able to make this available to everyone else. The main reason we can't make it open from the start has to do with technical / legal issues related to console dev, which I'll get into here in a second.
But first let's talk about what "traditional" console porting looks like.
Slide 9
So traditional porting is frankly a pain in the ass. Let's take a decent-sized indie game about the same size as Defender's Quest. I've seen porting companies charge anywhere from 25 to 100 thousand US dollars.
That price actually isn't even unreasonable, because it's a LOT of work to port a game "the hard way."
Usually this gets you ONE platform, coded mostly from scratch. Assuming everything even goes well, you wind up with a forked codebase so you have to patch bugs in parallel now.
Slide 10
So we all know Haxe is great.
Instead of porting one platform at a time, you can access them all at once from the same code base, at a low incremental cost per platform, and keep one unified codebase so any updates or bugfixes will instantly propagate to all of your supported targets.
Slide 11
Now, the problem is consoles are different. You can do "lime build linux" or "lime build ios" but one does not simply "lime build xbox."
Here's why.
Slide 12
Consoles are HARD to build for, especially for an open source project. Unlike android or iOS, the SDKs are closed. You have to be an approved developer to even look at them. Even if you have the SDK, you also need hardware to test on, which means a devkit. You're sworn to secrecy and you usually need to fork out some money. And it takes forever to do the paperwork.
Slide 13
Even worse, console development cuts off the standard lifelines we open source developers are used to using. I can't reveal the specifics of the various console SDKs, but I think it's safe to say that they generally use proprietary APIs for most things, especially graphics. You can't just use SDL or OpenGL right out of the box and expect it to work.
"No problem, I'll just google it," you say.
No you can't! The SDK is under NDA, so there's no information on the public web about it. No info on Stack Overflow either, and you definitely can't just dump your code that touches the console SDKs on github and ask for help that way.
There is some help -- the console owners have documentation and their own internal sites with forums and mailing lists. It's just harder than what we're normally used to.
Slide 14
There's lots of horror stories in console development. You go through a gauntlet before release, and you can't put out a patch without it getting checked out.
They're trying to make it better but it will never be like Steam where you can put out an unsupervised patch in five minutes. So it's kind of scary to push something new like Haxe/OpenFL to consoles for the first time.
Slide 15
So, we've come up with a solution to all of these problems. It doesn't have a name yet.
Slide 16
It's a new cross-console backend for Lime/OpenFL.
Slide 17
You can use the exact same OpenFL and Lime APIs you've been using so far, although it will have a new "console" renderer that is different from the existing GL, DOM, and CANVAS renderers Lime has right now.
So if you're using OpenFL you won't have to write any new code, but if you're using Lime and you're directly using, say, the GL renderer, you might need to write some new graphics code for your console targets. But once you do that you'll be able to hit ALL of the consoles we support.
Slide 18
We plan on supporting all of these consoles eventually: WiiU and 3DS, Xbox One, Playstation 4, Playstation Vita, and Playstation 3. As of right now we have dev kits for all of these systems except the 3DS.
Slide 19
As of today (May 30th at WWX), we currently have samples compiling and running on WiiU. More on that later.
Slide 20
Okay, so how does it work? Let's start by looking at the new OpenFL architecture.
Slide 21
The new OpenFL architecture is a lot simpler now. There's only two libraries: OpenFL, and Lime, with tools included in Lime.
OpenFL provides high level stuff like the flash API and the various renderers, whereas Lime provides the low level platform support, rendering context, and tools. There's no longer any openfl-native, or openfl-html5, it's all encapsulated in these two libraries.
Now let's add a console target, like WiiU.
Slide 22
So you add the "lime-wiiu" library. This comes with pre-built binaries for the WiiU, and obviously you need the WiiU SDK and a devkit to use it. But now you can write an OpenFL or Lime app, and type "lime build wiiu" to make an executable that will run on your devkit!
There will be a lime-{whatever} library for each console target.
Slide 23
So here's the full developer stack that we use internally to compile the entire thing from scratch. There's an intermediate library called "lime-console" that serves as a bridge between Lime itself and each native implementation. A lot of this is work we can do entirely on our own, but you notice there's a missing piece...
Slide 24
Basically, we need some "batteries" that we can slide in here to finish out the last mile of the console compatibility. So let's look at what this "console gap" looks like.
Slide 25
There are four major parts to the console gap. First, there's figuring out the toolchain, which is basically a big ugly XML file that Lime defines for each platform target, that gets Haxe/Lime to compile and run on that platform at all.
This is a big bundle of compiler flags, defines, etc, that we hand tweak. This has to be done individually for every new platform.
But it's manageable.
Slide 26
The other three are harder problems.
First, on consoles Haxe has holes in HXCPP, the runtime support for the Haxe standard library on C++ targets. And the holes are in different places on each platform. We could patch it in a custom way for each platform, but that's messy and inconsistent.
Second, we need a cross-platform solution that wraps asset processing for each console, and Third, we need a cross-platform console renderer so users don't have to support half a dozen different proprietary graphics APIs themselves.
Slide 27
So how do we fill this gap? What do we use for our "batteries?"
Slide 28
Well, you can try to do it yourself and bridge the console gap with your own C++ wrappers.
Okay, so now you have to hook up six different consoles running on drastically different hardware, running different software with different architectures, all with different rendering and asset pipelines, all with fresh, untested code that will somehow manage to pass certification and produce consistent results.
Easy!
If you're a hero, you're welcome to try this, but I'm a mere mortal so we decided to...
Slide 29
It just makes sense to partner with someone who knows what they're doing in the console space. So we're proud to announce that we're working with...
Slide 30
WayForward is a well-known console game developer. They've been in business for 25 years, they've published well over a hundred games on more than two dozen platforms. If there's anyone who knows how to do this, it's them.
Slide 31
You'll recognize some of these games. They're most famous for their original Shantae series of games, but they've also done a lot of popular licensed games, such as Double Dragon Neon, Adventure Time, DuckTales Remastered, Regular Show, etc.
Slide 32
So we're licensing their in-house game tech, "wfEngine." We can't go into too much detail about it today, but the broad strokes are that it supports both 2D and 3D, and it works on both current and last gen consoles. Most importantly, it also supports handhelds!
Slide 33
So, why this engine?
First, it's C++ based, so we can use the hxcpp target. This is way faster than using a virtual machine target like C# and connecting to Unity or Mono to power the backend.
Second, it's battle-tested. It's been used in tons of games that have all passed cert and already shipped.
Third, it's cross-console; it supports every platform we want to reach.
And as a special bonus, one of those platforms is the 3DS, which is actually the best-selling console of the current generation. GameMaker, Unity, etc, can't run on the 3DS -- (although Unity has just announced some partial support for the 3DS, likely games will only be able to run on the "NEW 3DS" model).
Slide 34
And so going back to our console gap, this plugs our remaining holes. We can use files in the lime-console library to patch HXCPP with wfEngine's implementations of anything that's missing. We can also use its pipeline and processing code to build out the console version of Lime's asset packaging. And of course, the new OpenFL "console" renderer connects to wfEngine via Lime.
Slide 35
Here's HaxeFlixel's stock MODE demo running on a WiiU. That's not HTML5 either, that's real C++ running natively!
Slide 36
So as of today we have some demos compiling and running using this tech stack on WiiU. We've got HaxeFlixel's MODE, OpenFL's PiratePig, a 3D rotating cubes demo, a gamepad input demo, bunnymark, and audio all confirmed as working.
Slide 37
We also have access to these devkits -- WiiU, PS4, PS3, PSVita, Xbox One. The only thing we don't have yet is the 3DS but we're working on that.
The great news is that once we get one target up and running (as we have done with the WiiU), the cross-platform architecture makes it easier to get each next target.
Slide 38
So what's next? Well, step one is to proceed with our "phase 1" launch games: Yummy Circus, Papers Please, Defender's Quest HD.
Slide 39
Step 2 is to see how that went and get feedback, work out the bugs, etc. Basically confirm that yes, this works.
Slide 40
I should mention these 3 particular games give us a lot of API coverage. Yummy Circus is a networked party game with controller input, Papers Please will focus strongly on the Vita target and mobile/touch input, and Defender's Quest uses HaxeFlixel, probably the most popular Haxe-based game engine, as well as its user interface library, Flixel-UI.
So when we get these three games up and running, we'll be very confident that we can get lots of different kinds of games running.
Slide 41
After that is when we figure out how we're going to make this available to others outside of Phase 1, working out terms with the console platform holders and WayForward.
One of the reasons I came to this conference is to find other Haxe developers interested in this solution; If you're among them then you should get in touch with us now so that we can make sure your interests are represented in the final version of this solution.
Slide 42
And after that, we'll focus on getting each and every one of these six consoles fully supported as quickly as we can.
Now, let's watch some videos :)
Video 1
This first one is a slightly customized demo of OpenFL's stock PiratePig demo. The only thing I've done is add controller input. As you can see, the input is driven by the actual WiiU gamepad controller. Apologies for the lighting, I suck at videos.
Video 2
This is HaxeFlixel's MODE demo running on the WiiU. Please note that any slowdown you see is caused by two things: first, it's running in debug mode spewing out tons of debug symbols with no optimizations, and second, whenever you blow up one of the ship spawners there's apparently an intentional slow-mo effect programmed into the demo that has nothing to do with performance constraints.
Slide 42
Now for questions. (I'm going to do my best to remember these).
Q: What about 3D? Will this support 3D?
A: Yes. Obviously our first three lead games are 2D, but this technology is 3D-capable. Lime exposes a simple 3D context that you can build something more sophisticated on top of. You can look to tools like Away3D that build on top of Lime/OpenFL to provide more sophisticated 3D engine structure, we're just providing the basics.
Q: What about shaders? Will they be unified across all the platforms or not?
A: Yes, that's the goal. I can't go into too many specifics just yet, but we should be able to provide a unified shader interface across the console space. We're still working out whether we'll also be able to unify that with the existing desktop/mobile/html5 shaders which are GL based. But the goal is to make it so you don't have to write your shaders 6 times.
Q: What should I do if I want to use this?
A: You should get in touch with us now! Email leveluplabs at gmail dot com for now.
Q: What's the timeline?
A: We hope to have our phase 1 games ready before the end of the year.
Q: Is there a way to test my games on the console stack before I get access to everything?
A: Yes, there will be. There is also a "lime-console-pc" target in addition to "lime-wiiu", "lime-ps4, "lime-xbox1" etc. Basically, wfEngine has a PC target. This is normally redundant to us because we already have Mac/Windows/Linux well supported in OpenFL. However, it provides a way to make a target that represents what the console stack will behave like. So even if you don't have an agreement in place with Nintendo or Microsoft or Sony, you could at least try the console-pc target and get a reasonable idea of what the console stack will do with your game, and test it on your PC. Also, we're going to stick as close as we can to the OpenFL and Lime APIs, so if your game is already using those you will not be far off from having something that will run on a console.
Q: How will I use this when it's available?
A: The idea is we'll provide you with the "lime-XYZ" library where XYZ is a console platform you are a certified developer for. So sign up with Nintendo for the WiiU, then you can work with us to legally get "lime-wiiu", etc. We're in early talks with the various console maker's middleware departments to make things more convenient, but nothing has been finalized yet. The first stage is just to prove the technology (Phase 1). After that we will work out all the details for Phase 2.
Q: How much will it cost / what are the licensing terms?
A: We're still working that out and we can't announce any fixed numbers yet, but suffice it to say we know people have options and we have no plans to get into the red-ocean, for-profit commercial game engine business. We see this as a cost-sharing method for our community and we will provide this at a cost that allows us to support and maintain it. When someone like Unity offers individual developers console licenses "for free," Unity almost certainly has a subsidy agreement worked out with partners. We're looking into that sort of thing but I want to emphasize that nothing has been agreed to just yet.
Q: Can this be used for stuff other than games?
A: You betcha! At the conference, TiVo expressed a particular interest, presumably for the sake of getting their apps running on consoles natively.
That's all folks!
If you're interested in this, please get in touch. And if you're a Haxe / OpenFL developer, please help spread the word!
UPDATE: If you're interested, you can fill out this form as a starting point: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1nOWzWk1ABMbvnXVXe5XZJT7sFfuhVVdZ46tQ9t0OJ3o/viewform?usp=send_form
submitted by larsiusprime to gamedev [link] [comments]

What entity manages .com, .net, .gov, .us, .cn domains?

For the longest time I still have not a clue how this works. I am not sure if this is the right subreddit or something like networking
This is all I understand so far about the web (or internet?), computers, and electronics in general (its super long just skip to bold part if you need to)
INTERNET:
Okay, but who manages the .info, .com, .net, .cn, .rs, and .gov top level domains?
There's obviously some domains that are specific to countries, and are most likely managed by that countries' government entity. E.G (.us for usa? .ws for russia, .cn for china) but aren't nearly as popular as the .net and .com domains.
.Org and .gov are US? government regulated top level domains to my knowledge, where .org is mostly nonprofit. U.S.A uses .gov domains for its government organizations
So I understand that some countries government manages that domain. But what about public top level domains, like .com, .info, .net, .ca?
Who manages the database for those? Who gives authority to godaddy for those domains for rent? Who mediates copyright conflicts for those domains? (E.G. say my name is Mike Cro Soft, and I wanted to rent a domain called mikecrosoft, but get DMCA'd / copyrighted by microsoft.com)
Like, what are the big organizations mediating internet protocols and legislation on a global scale?
Who or what has access to the biggest picture of the web, and its workings and backend?
sorry for the long wall of text, I've been missing some vital information on how the web? (or is it internet?) works
disclaimer: I don't take CS classes and did not major in computer science. So I might be really off in what i understand about the internet as a whole. Most of this is just what I learned from browsing reddit and youtube
Apologies in advance if i butchered a bunch of terms and how things work. I just wrote things as they randomly came to me
submitted by Rubick555 to AskComputerScience [link] [comments]

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